Comparing biochemical changes and energetic costs in gastropods with diVerent developmental modes: Crepipatella dilatata and C. fecunda
MetadataShow full item record
The Chilean gastropods Crepipatella dilatata and C. fecunda have diVerent development modes: brooding and direct development in C. dilatata and brooding and planktotrophic development in C. fecunda. Unlike many other congeneric invertebrate species pairs, recent genetic evidence suggests that C. fecunda may have evolved from C. dilatata. To explore the changes involved in this unusual evolutionary path, this study examined the biochemical, energetic, and morphological characters during early development of both species. Mean egg size was slightly smaller for the direct-developing species C. dilatata, and initial energy content was lower—by about 27%—for eggs of that species. In both species, protein content in the eggs was the principal biochemical component. Although females of C. fecunda produce 180 times more eggs than C. dilatata, females of C. dilatata invest 20 times more energy in each of their oVspring, through nurse eggs; their embryos have approximately eight times more energy at hatching and about 5 times more energy when they enter the benthos, despite a long planktonic feeding period in the larvae of C. fecunda. Evolutionary switching between modes of development in these species is reXected in shifts in maternal energy investment.
DOI: DOI 10.1007/s00227-011-1788-2