Effect of biosolid application to Mollisol Chilean soils on the bioavailability of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Ni, and Zn) as assessed by bioassays with sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and DGT measurements
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Purpose This study assessed the effect of biosolid application on the bioavailable fraction of some trace elements (Cu, Cr, Ni, and Zn) using a bioassay with sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and a chemical assay, diffusion gradient in thin films (DGT). Materials and methods Five surface soil samples (0–20 cm) were collected from an agricultural zone in Central Chile where biosolids are likely to be applied. Municipal biosolids were mixed with the soil at concentrations of 0, 30, 90, and 200 Mg ha−1. The experiment to determine the bioavailability of metals in the soil using the bioassay was performed using sunflower. The DGT technique and Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction were used to determine the bioavailable fractions of the metals. Results and discussion The application of biosolids increased the phytoavailability of Zn, Ni, and Cr in most of the soils, as indicated by the increasing concentrations in sunflower plants as the biosolid application rate increased. In two of the soils, Codigua and Pelvín, this increase peaked at an application rate of 90 Mg ha−1. Decreases in the bioavailable fractions of Zn, Ni, and Cr were observed with higher biosolid application rates. The bioavailability of metals was estimated through multiple linear regression models between the metals in the sunflower plants and the different chemical fractions ofmetals in the soils treated with different biosolid rates, which displayed a positive contribution of the labile (water soluble, carbonate, and exchangeable), oxide, and organic metal forms in the soil, particularly with respect to Ni and Zn at application rates of 30 and 90 Mg ha−1. The bioavailable fraction of metals was determined in soils using the DGT technique. The effective concentration (CE) results were compared with those in sunflower plants. The DGT technique could effectively predict the bioavailable fractions of Cr, Ni, and Zn in the Taqueral soil but only that of Zn in the Polpaico soil. Conclusions The application of biosolids significantly increased the labile fraction of most of the metals in the studied soils, particularly at the highest biosolid application rate. CE increased as the concentration of biosolids increased for most of the metals. The effectiveness of the DGT technique for predicting the bioavailability of metals was dependent on the soil type and the metal. However, the CE for soil Cu was not related to plant Cu for all soils studied.
Artículo de publicación ISI
DOI: DOI: 10.1007/s11368-013-0842-8