Mitochondrial distribution and meiotic progression in canine oocytes during in vivo and in vitro maturation
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The objective was to evaluate mitochondrial distribution, and its relationship to meiotic development, in canine oocytes during in vitro maturation (IVM) at 48, 72, and 96 h, compared to those that were non-matured or in vivo matured (ovulated). The distribution of active mitochondria during canine oocyte maturation (both in vitro and in vivo) was assessed with fluorescence and confocal microscopy using MitoTracker Red (MT-Red), whereas chromatin configuration was concurrently evaluated with fluorescence microscopy and DAPI staining. During IVM, oocytes exhibited changes in mitochondrial organization, ranging from a fine uniform distribution (pattern A), to increasing clustering spread throughout the cytoplasm (pattern B), and to a more perinuclear and cortical distribution (pattern C). Pattern A was mainly observed in germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes (96.4%), primarily in the non-matured group (P 0.05). Pattern B was seen in all ovulated oocytes which were fully in second metaphase (MII), whereas in IVM oocytes, 64% were pattern B, irrespective of duration of culture or stage of nuclear development (P 0.05). Pattern C was detected in a minor percentage (P 0.05) of oocytes (mainly those in first metaphase, MI) cultured for 72 or 96 h. In vitro matured oocytes had a minor percentage of pattern B (P 0.05) and smaller mitochondrial clusters in IVM oocytes than ovulated oocytes, reaching only 4, 11, and 17% of MII at 48, 72, and 96 h, respectively. Thus, although IVM canine oocytes rearranged mitochondria, which could be related to nuclear maturation, they did not consistently proceed to MII, perhaps due to incomplete IVM, confirming that oocytes matured in vitro were less likely to be competent than those matured in vivo.
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