Motor Activity and intra-individual variability according to sleep–wake states in preschool-aged children with iron-deficiency anemia in infancy
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Background: A chronic or acute insult may affect the regulatory processes that guide motor and behavioral performance, leading to increased intra-individual variability (IIV). Increased variability is often interpreted as an indication of regulatory dysfunction. Iron plays an important role in the regulatory processes of the nervous system and affects motor activity. To our knowledge, no study has examined the long-lasting patterns and IIV of motor activity following iron-deficiency anemia in human infants. Aims: This study compared 48-h motor activity and variability in preschool-aged children with or without irondeficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy. Methods: Motor activity was recorded through actigraphs during two week-days in 47 4-year-old Chilean children (23 former IDA and 24 non-anemic in infancy). All were given oral iron as infants. Sleep–wake states were identified by means of automated software. The frequency ofmovement units perminutewas determined for eachwaking/sleep state during the individual day and night periods; datawere examined in blocks of 15 min. Analyses of mean frequency and duration and intra-individual variability were conducted using multivariate mixed models. Results: For daytime sleep, former IDA children weremore activewithout a difference in the total duration. They also spent less time awake throughout the individual day period. Motor activity intra-individual variability was higher in former IDA children. Conclusions: The findings suggest that IDA in infancy sets the stage for long lasting dysfunction in the neural processes regulating sleep–wake states and spontaneous motor activity patterns.
Artículo de publicación ISI
DOI: DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2013.08.014