Nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma and its association with type "i"/Xhol loss strain Epstein-Barr virus in Chile
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Background: Nasal T/natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoma is an aggressive type of non-Hodking's lymphoma associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and striking geographical variations worldwide. Aim: To characterise nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma associated with genotypes of EBV in Chile, a Latin American country, where multiple strains of EBV, including two new recombinant strains, in healthy individuals were recently found. Methods: Cases with diagnosis of primary nasal lymphoma were selected for histological and immunohistochemical analysis (CD3, CD3e, CD4, CD8, CD79a, CD56, CD57 and TIA-1) and in-situ hybridisation, serology and genotyping analysis for EBV. Results: Out of 22 cases, 9 (41%) cases fulfilled the World Health Organization criteria for nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma; of these 7 (78%) cases were positive for EBV. Genotyping analysis revealed 6 cases of type 1 EBV and wildtype F at the BamHI-F region, 4 cases type "i" EBV at the BamHI-W1/I1 region; XhoI wild type was found in 2 and XhoI loss in 4 cases, respectively. Cosegregation analysis of the BamHI-W1/I1 region and XhoI restriction site showed the new recombinant strain type "i"/Xhol loss in 3 cases and type "i"/Xhol wildtype strain in 1 case. Most patients were treated with combined anthracycline-containing regimens. Half of the cases attained complete remission. Conclusion: Although nasal NK/T-cell lymphomas from Chile share similar clinicopathological features, high association with EBV and unfavourable prognosis with those described elsewhere, genotype analysis shows that the new recombinant type "i"/Xhol loss strain might contribute to explain the intermediate incidence of nasal NK/T-cell lymphomas in Latin America.