Effect of gastric bypass on Barrett's esophagus and intestinal metaplasia of the cardia in patients with morbid obesity
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Gastric bypass in patients with morbid obesity should be an excellent antireflux procedure, because no acid is produced at the small gastric pouch anal no duodenal reflux is present, due to the long Roux-en-Y limb. Five hundred fifty-seven patients with morbid obesity submitted to resectional gastric bypass, and routine preoperative upper endoscopy with biopsy samples demonstrated 12 patients with Barrett's esophagus (2.1%) and three patients with intestinal metaplasia of the cardia (CIM). An endoscopic procedure was repeated twice after surgery, producing Seven patients with short-segment Barrett's esophagus (BE) and five patients with long-segment BE. Body mass index (BMI) decreased significantly, from 43.2 kg/m(2) to 29.4 kg/m(2) 2 years after surgery. Symptoms of reflux esophagitis, which were present in 14 of the 15 patients, disappeared in all patients 1 year after surgery. Preoperative erosive esophagitis and peptic ulcer of the esophagus healed in all patients. There was regression from intestinal metaplasia to cardiac mucosa in four patients (57%) with short-segment BE, and in one patient (20%) with long-segment BE. Two (67%) of three cases with CIM had regression to cardiac mucosa. There was no progression to low- or high-grade dysplasia. Gastric bypass in patients with Barrett's esophagus and morbid obesity is an excellent antireflux operation, proved by the disappearance of symptoms and the healing of endoscopic esophagitis or peptic ulcer in all patients, which is followed by in important regression to cardiac mucosa that is length-dependent and time-dependent.