Anti-Mullerian hormone levels in peripubertal daughters of women with polycystic ovary syndrome
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Context: We have previously observed increased anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels in prepubertal daughters of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women, suggesting that these girls may have an altered follicular development. However, it is not known whether AMH levels remain increased during puberty. Objective: The aim was to establish whether the increased AMH levels observed in prepubertal daughters of PCOS women persist during the peripubertal period, a stage during which the gonadal axis is activated and PCOS may become clinically manifested. Design: We studied 28 daughters (8-16 yr old) of PCOS women (PCOSd) and 33 daughters (8-16 yr old) of control women (Cd). In both groups, an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Gonadotropins, sex hormones, and AMH were determined in a fasting sample. Results: Both groups were comparable in age, body mass index, and breast Tanner stage. Free androgen index, testosterone, AMH ( Cd 14.4 +/- 8.0 pM vs. PCOSd 24.0 +/- 19.0 pM; P = 0.012), and 2-h insulin levels were significantly higher in the PCOSd group compared with the control group. The average ovarian volume was significantly higher in the PCOSd group. In both groups a positive correlation between 2-h insulin and AMH concentrations was observed (PCOSd: r = 0.530, P = 0.007; Cd: r = 0.561, P = 0.008). Conclusions: AMH concentrations are increased in peripubertal PCOSd. These findings, along with the results of our previous study, suggest that PCOSd appear to show an increased follicular mass that is established during early development, and persists during puberty.