Control glicémico de pacientes diabéticos hospitalizados en un Servicio de Medicina Interna
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Background: During hospitalization, hyper and hypoglycemia impairs the prognosis of diabetic patients. Strict glycemic control improves survival in intensive care units. There is no evidence to support it for patients in non-critical wards. Aim: To evaluate the glycemic control of diabetic patients in a non-critical medical unit, and estimate its effect on hospitalization and survival. Material and Methods: Prospective study of all patients admitted to a non-critical ward with a fasting blood glucose (BG) > 126 mg/dl or > 200 mg /dl at any time, and patients with known diabetes. Age, sex, type of diabetes, time since diagnosis, chronic complications, prior treatment, length of stay, admission and discharge diagnosis were registered. All capillary BG levels obtained from each patient until discharge, death or transfer, were registered. Results: Ninety nine patients aged 63 ± 13.4 years (42 males,) were included. Ninety one percent had a type 2 diabetes with a mean duration of 13.8 years. Mean hospital stay was 10.9 days. At least one hypoglycemia below 70 mg/dl occurred in 21% of patients and 39.4% had at least one episode with blood glucose over 300 mg/dl. Median hospital stay of patients with no episode of BG > 200 mg/dl was 6 days, 10.5 days among patients with at least one episode of BG > 300 mg/dl and 13 days among patients that had at least one episode of hypoglycemia (p = 0.02). Diabetes lasted nine years more among the latter (p < 0.01). Three patients that suffered hypoglycemia and two in the rest of the groups, died (NS). Conclusions: Two of three diabetic patients admitted to our non-critical medical ward have a non-optimal glycemic control. Appearance of hypoglycemia is associated with a longer hospital stay.
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