Rotavirus vaccines for the developing world
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The authors discuss the most relevant information in the field of rotavirus vaccines published from October 2007 to June 2009; new information on the virus, host response and disease burden that relate to our understanding of vaccine mechanisms and impact are discussed. The review will focus on the role of the vaccines for the developing world but this does not preclude the relevance of these vaccines for children living in the industrialized world. Recent findings Immune mechanisms involved in rotavirus-associated immunity potentially relevant for vaccine-associated immunity continue to be identified including anti-NSP4 antibodies, cellular and mucosal mechanisms. Rotavirus-associated disease burden is high, causing approximately 40% of diarrhea-associated hospitalizations in children less than 5 years of age worldwide; G12, G8 and P antigenic types emerging in developing countries are increasing in prevalence and may share worldwide circulation with the other five more common serotypes. The two currently available vaccines, based on different immune concepts, (VP7/VP4 homotypic specificity for RotaTeq vs. homotypic and heterotypic specificity for Rotarix) have demonstrated high and sustained efficacy in middle and high-income countries. Recent efficacy and effectiveness studies demonstrate acceptable protection levels in the poorest countries of the world against most antigenic types, leading to universal vaccine recommendation. Postlicensure surveillance has not detected any signal of increased risk for intussusception in children vaccinated with any of the two vaccines. Summary Rotavirus vaccines are well tolerated and provide adequate protection against moderate to severe disease in high, middle and low-income regions. Partnerships between governments, industry, and funding agencies will now be urgently needed to promote vaccine use, especially in the less privileged countries of the world.
Quote ItemCurrent Opinion in Infectious Diseases 2009, 22:483–489
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