Differential gene expression revealed with RNA-Seq and parallel genotype selection of the ornithine decarboxylase gene in fish inhabiting polluted areas
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How organisms adapt to unfavorable environmental conditions by means of plasticity or selection of favorable genetic variants is a central issue in evolutionary biology. In the Maipo River basin, the fish Basilichthys microlepidotus inhabits polluted and non-polluted areas. Previous studies have suggested that directional selection drives genomic divergence between these areas in 4% of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) loci, but the underlying genes and functions remain unknown. We hypothesized that B. microlepidotus in this basin has plastic and/or genetic responses to these conditions. Using RNA-Seq, we identified differentially expressed genes in individuals from two polluted sites compared with fish inhabiting non-polluted sites. In one polluted site, the main upregulated genes were related to cellular proliferation as well as suppression and progression of tumors, while biological processes and molecular functions involved in apoptotic processes were overrepresented in the upregulated genes of the second polluted site. The ornithine decarboxylase gene (related to tumor promotion and progression), which was overexpressed in both polluted sites, was sequenced, and a parallel pattern of a heterozygote deficiency and increase of the same homozygote genotype in both polluted sites compared with fish inhabiting the non-polluted sites was detected. These results suggest the occurrence of both a plastic response in gene expression and an interplay between phenotypic change and genotypic selection in the face of anthropogenic pollution.
Artículo de publicación ISI
Quote ItemScientific Reports (2018) 8: 4820
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