Behavioral and Neuropsychiatric Disorders in Alzheimer’s Disease
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent type of dementia in the elderly, severely affecting functional and executive skills of subjects suffering from this disease. Moreover, the distress of caregivers as well as the social implications constitute a critical issue for families. Furthermore, cognitive impairment, along with behavioral disorders and neuropsychiatric symptoms are characteristics of AD. Although these are present with variations in prevalence, intensity, and progression, an important core of them is visible before cognitive impairment, especially depression and apathy, which affect at least 50% of patients. The most updated literature shows that depression and/or behavioral and neuropsychiatric symptoms (BNS) are part of the initial phase of the disease rather than just a risk factor. Thus, mood disorders are associated with anomalies in specific brain regions that disturb the normal balance of neurotransmission. This in turn is linked with an inflammatory pathway that leads to microglial activation and aggregated neurofibrillary tangle formation, finally triggering neuronal loss, according to our neuroimmunomodulation theory. Altogether, inflammation and tau aggregation are observed in preclinical stages, preceding the BNS of patients, which in turn are exhibited earlier than cognitive and functional impairment detected in AD. This review is focused on the latest insights of cellular and molecular processes associated with BNS in asymptomatic early-onset stages of AD. An important medical research focus is to improve quality of life of patients, through prevention and treatments of AD, and the study of behavioral disorders and early event in AD pathogenesis has a major impact.
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Cita del ítemJournal of Alzheimer's Disease Volumen: 63 Número: 3 Páginas: 899-910
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