Effective two-dimensional model for granular matter with phase separation
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Granular systems confined in vertically vibrated shallow horizontal boxes (quasi-two-dimensional geometry) present a liquid-to-solid phase transition when the frequency of the periodic forcing is increased. An effective model, where grains move and collide in two-dimensions is presented, which reproduces the aforementioned phase transition. The key element is that besides the two-dimensional degrees of freedom, each grain has an additional variables that accounts for the kinetic energy stored in the vertical motion in the real quasi-two-dimensional motion. This energy grows monotonically during free flight, mimicking the energy gained by collisions with the vibrating walls and, at collisions, this energy is instantaneously transferred to the horizontal degrees of freedom. As a result, the average values of s and the kinetic temperature are decreasing functions of the local density, giving rise to an effective pressure that can present van der Waals loops. A kinetic theory approach predicts the conditions that must satisfy the energy growth function to obtain the phase separation, which are verified with molecular dynamics simulations. Notably, the effective equation of state and the critical points computed considering the velocity-time-of-flight correlations differ only slightly from those obtained by simple kinetic theory calculations that neglect those correlations.
Artículo de publicación ISI
Quote ItemPhysical Review E Volumen: 98 Número: 2 Número de artículo: 022901 Aug 2018
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