Cold Adaptation, Ca2+ Dependency and Autolytic Stability Are Related Features in a Highly Active Cold-Adapted Trypsin Resistant to Autoproteolysis Engineered for Biotechnological Applications
Pig trypsin is routinely used as a biotechnological tool, due to its high specificity and ability to be stored as an inactive stable zymogen. However, it is not an optimum enzyme for conditions found in wound debriding for medical uses and trypsinization processes for protein analysis and animal cell culturing, where low Ca2+ dependency, high activity in mild conditions and easy inactivation are crucial. We isolated and thermodynamically characterized a highly active cold-adapted trypsin for medical and laboratory use that is four times more active than pig trypsin at 10° C and at least 50% more active than pig trypsin up to 50° C. Contrary to pig trypsin, this enzyme has a broad optimum pH between 7 and 10 and is very insensitive to Ca2+ concentration. The enzyme is only distantly related to previously described cryophilic trypsins. We built and studied molecular structure models of this trypsin and performed molecular dynamic calculations. Key residues and structures associated with calcium dependency and cryophilicity were identified. Experiments indicated that the protein is unstable and susceptible to autoproteolysis. Correlating experimental results and structural predictions, we designed mutations to improve the resistance to autoproteolysis and conserve activity for longer periods after activation. One single mutation provided around 25 times more proteolytic stability. Due to its cryophilic nature, this trypsin is easily inactivated by mild denaturation conditions, which is ideal for controlled proteolysis processes without requiring inhibitors or dilution. We clearly show that cold adaptation, Ca2+ dependency and autolytic stability in trypsins are related phenomena that are linked to shared structural features and evolve in a concerted fashion. Hence, both structurally and evolutionarily they cannot be interpreted and studied separately as previously done.
Artículo de publicación ISI
Quote ItemPlos One. August 2013. Volume 8. Issue 8