Millimeter spectral indices and dust trapping by planets in brown dwarf disks
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Disks around brown dwarfs (BDs) are excellent laboratories to study the first steps of planet formation in cold and low-mass disk conditions. The radial-drift velocities of dust particles in BD disks higher than in disks around more massive stars. Therefore, BD disks are expected to be more depleted in millimeter-sized grains compared to disks around T Tauri or Herbig Ae/Be stars. However, recent millimeter observations of BD disks revealed low millimeter spectral indices, indicating the presence of large grains in these disks and challenging models of dust evolution. We present 3 mm photometric observations carried out with the IRAM/Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) of three BD disks in the Taurus star-forming region, which have been observed with ALMA at 0.89 mm. The disks were not resolved and only one was detected with enough confidence (similar to 3.5 sigma) with PdBI. Based on these observations, we obtain the values and lower limits of the spectral index and find low values (alpha(mm) less than or similar to 3.0). We compare these observations in the context of particle trapping by an embedded planet, a promising mechanism to explain the observational signatures in more massive and warmer disks. We find, however, that this model cannot reproduce the current millimeter observations for BD disks, and multiple-strong pressure bumps globally distributed in the disk remain as a favorable scenario to explain observations. Alternative possibilities are that the gas masses in the BD disk are very low (similar to 2 x 10(-3) M-Jup) such that the millimeter grains are decoupled and do not drift, or fast growth of fluffy aggregates.
NASA - Space Telescope Science Institute HST-HF2-51380.001-A NASA NAS 5-26555 ANR of France ANR-16-CE31-0013
Artículo de publicación ISI
Quote ItemThe Astrophysical Journal, 846:70 (10pp), 2017
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