Adipokines underlie the early origins of obesity and associated metabolic comorbidities in the offspring of women with pregestational obesity
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Maternal pregestational obesity is a well-known risk factor for offspring obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms by which maternal obesity can induce alterations in fetal and later neonatal metabolism are not fully elucidated due to its complexity and multifactorial causes. Two adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, are involved in fetal and postnatal growth trajectories, and both are altered in women with pregestational obesity. The placenta synthesizes leptin, which goes mainly to the maternal circulation and in lesser amount to the developing fetus. Maternal pregestational obesity and hyperleptinemia are associated with placental dysfunction and changes in nutrient transporters which directly affect fetal growth and development. By the other side, the embryo can produce its own leptin from early in development, which is associated to fetal weight and adiposity. Adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing adipokine, is downregulated in maternal obesity. High molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin is the most abundant form and with most biological actions. In maternal obesity lower total and HMW adiponectin levels have been described in the mother, paralleled with high levels in the umbilical cord. Several studies have found that cord blood adiponectin levels are related with postnatal growth trajectories, and it has been suggested that low adiponectin levels in women with pregestational obesity enhance placental insulin sensitivity and activation of placental amino acid transport systems, supporting fetal overgrowth. The possible mechanisms by which maternal pregestational obesity, focusing in the actions of leptin and adiponectin, affects the fetal development and postnatal growth trajectories in their offspring are discussed.
Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT) CONICYT FONDECYT 1171406 Programa de Investigacion Asociativa (PIA) - Anillos ACT172097
Artículo de publicación ISI
Quote ItemBBA - Molecular Basis of Disease 1866 (2020) 165558
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