El proceso de reestructuracion económica nacional y su impacto en el sistema regional: 1976-1981
Apey Guzmán, Alfredo
Cita de ítem
Inform. geogr. Chile 30: 83-97, 1983.
ln recent years, some Latin American countries -1ike Chile- have been experimenting a deep
shift away from the traditional development style: having created a strong role for state
intervention in the economy, the traditional model -"desarrollista"- emphasized industrial
development, expanding the internal market, import substitution, and control over foreign
investment. Some countries, like the Chilean case, have largely replaced such a model with a
drastically different development approach: the unfettered integration of the national economy
into the international market of goods, services and capital. This aperture or internationalisation
of the local economy is based on a neoclassical economic view of free trade, private sector
development of comparative advantages and a reduced role for the public sector.
If the neo-classical approach of development is considered, the exploitation of the country's
majorcomparative advantages-natural resources and export agriculture- should induce to Iess
concentrated patterns of development, bringing up regional specialisation and, once the regional
productive infrastructure is developed, there will be a tendency towards the dispersion of
population among the systems of regions.
From a general perspective, nevertheless, the regional outcome of the current economic
strategy seems to be characterised by a process of inter-regional differentiation in which the
exports-oriented regions (mainly mining) become the only functional ones to the comparative
advantages approach. That is to say, only two regions have shown a relative process of economic
polarisation toward the exploitation of natural resources. The other regions, however, which have
been historically associated to internal market activities have not properly reacted to the
economic restructuring process through higher leve1 of specialisation on export commodities. On
the contrary, both the inter and intra regional analyses show that the regions have become
increasingly less specialised in primary activities.