Effect of drought stress on the osmotic adjustment, cell wall elasticity and cell volume of six cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)
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In the southern spring–summer season of 2001–2002 six cultivars (Orfeo, Arroz Tuscola, Barbucho, Coscorr´on, Pinto and T´ortola) of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were grown under two frequencies of irrigation in the central zone of Chile. Control plants were irrigated every 7 days and water stress plants were irrigated every 21 days. Leaf water potential (ΨW), leaf relative water content (RWC), turgid weight to dry weight ratio (TW/DW), osmotic potential at full turgor (ψ100 S ), osmotic adjustment (OA), elasticity module of the cell wall (ε) and cell size of the palisade and spongy tissue were evaluated at 74–76 days after sowing (DAS) in completely developed leaves. Water stressed plants showed lower ΨW than in control plants in all the varieties with values that averaged −1.4 and −0.9MPa, respectively. According to the Drought Resistance Index (DRI) calculated from field measurements, among the cultivars studied, Orfeo was the most resistant to water stress and Arroz Tuscola, the most susceptible. A close negative relationship between leaf TW/DW and DRI under water stress conditions was observed (r2 = 0.63). Leaf TW/DW decreased considerably with water stress in cultivar Orfeo (15%) but the decrease was higher in T´ortola (22%), and there was also a decrease (although smaller) in Pinto (11%). Arroz Tuscola under stress did not present an important change in TW/DW, but presented one of the highest values of TW/DW. There was a strong negative correlation between DRI and palisade cell size under water stress conditions (r2 = 0.85) and a strong positive one between palisade cell size and TW/DW(r2 = 0.86) thus higher DRI was associated with small palisade cell size and small TW/DW. The most resistant cultivar Orfeo did not show a decrease in ψ100 S calculated from the pressure–RWC relationships and its resistance was not associated with maintenance of leaf TW/DW under water stress. ψ100 S calculated from the pressure–RWC relationships decreased only in the cultivar Coscorr´on. Cultivar Orfeo showed a strong decrease (35%) of ε, in association to a higher cell wall elasticity (CWE) and as consequence maintained better its cell turgescence but this was also the case of T´ortola (56%) and Pinto (34%) and to a lesser extent of Barbucho (18%). This was not the case for Arroz Tuscola where ε and CWE were not changed. These results suggest that CWE and to a lesser extent leaf TW/DW can be important components of the water stress adaptation mechanism in this specie that could contribute to the higher resistance to water stress of Orfeo compared to Arroz Tuscola.
Artículo de publicación ISI
DOI: DOI: 10.1016/j.eja.2006.08.003