Screening and determination of pesticides in soil using continuous subcritical water extraction and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry
MetadataShow full item record
In the present work the efficiency of water under subcritical conditions for the extraction of pesticides having a broad spectrum of polarities from soils was evaluated. The pesticides under study were carbofuran, hexachlorobenzene, dimethoate, simazine, atrazine, lindane, diazinon, methylparathion, alachlor, aldrin-R, metholachlor, chlorpyrifos, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, endrin, 4,4-DDT and metoxichlor. Optimization studies were carried out using a blank soil (Non-Polluted Soil 1, CLN-1, RTC) and a real soil which were previously spiked with the pesticide mixture and aged for 60 days. A laboratory-made aluminum oven with controlled temperature was used to carry out the leaching process with subcritical water, where it is placed a pre-heater and the extraction cell. The following variables were studied, keeping the pressure controlled about 1200 p.s.i.: the extraction temperature, the time of static and dynamic extraction and the flow-rate of water (1 p.s.i.=6894.76 Pa). The extraction efficiency of the pesticides increases with the temperature trending to the quantitative extraction at temperatures near to 300 degreesC. After the extraction process, the analytes were transferred quantitatively to 5 ml dichloromethane, before the determination by GC-MS. The results indicate that under the optimized conditions mostly of the analytes are extracted quantitatively in 90 min with recoveries quite similar to those obtained by the standard Soxhlet extraction procedure. Alternatively, by using an extraction time of 25 min, the method can be used as screening for all the pesticides, with recoveries depending on their polarity.