Acidos grasos con isomeria trans I. Su origen y los efectos en la salud humana
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It has been observed that foods with similar amount of starch can generate different glycemic responses. The evidence of a direct link between saturated fat consumption and an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases has led consumers to consider oils derived from vegetables, and industrial products derived from them, as healthier substitutes than animal fats. During the technological manipulation of vegetable oils, in order to transform them into more stable products it is applied the process of hydrogenation. The main side effect of this process is the formation of geometric and positional isomers of the unsaturated fatty acids, primarily trans isomers of fatty acids (TFA). Dietary TFA consumption has a biological and industrial origin; the latter found in margarine, shortening, home and industrial cooking oil, bakery goods, and the wide range of snack foods. Substantial TFA amounts come from the so called “invisible fats”, the raw material used to manufacture more complex foods. The current wisdom is that TFA have an adverse effect on cardiovascular health, and its consumption poses a potential risk for increasing the incidence of heart disease.