Satiety responsiveness and eating behavior among Chilean adolescents and the role of breastfeeding
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OBJECTIVE: To determine patterns of satiety responsiveness and its relationship to eating in the absence of hunger (EAH), in a cohort of adolescents. We also assessed whether sex, body mass index and duration of breastfeeding, during infancy, predicted satiety responsiveness and eating behavior at 16 years. METHODS: Adolescents (n¼576) from a longitudinal cohort, which began as an iron deficiency anemia preventive trial, participated in an unlimited breakfast after an overnight fast, and reported satiety response on a visual analog scale after the meal, followed by an EAH procedure. Height, weight and body composition were measured before breakfast. Latent profile analysis generated profiles that captured individual differences in satiety responsiveness. Multivariable regressions, adjusted for potential confounders, evaluated the association between: (1) satiety responsiveness and EAH, and (2) breastfeeding in infancy, satiety responsiveness and EAH in adolescence. RESULTS: Participants were on average 16.7-year old, 48% female, 37% overweight/obese and 76% were breastfed as the sole source of milk for o6 months. We found three latent profiles of satiety responsiveness: 1: ‘responsive’ (49%); 2: ‘not responsive’ (41%); 3: ‘still hungry’ (10%). Participants in the ‘not responsive’ or ‘still hungry’ profile were more likely to eat during the EAH procedure (odds ratio (OR)¼2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI)¼1.8–3.6). Being breastfed for o6 months was related to higher odds of being in the ‘not responsive’ or ‘still hungry’ profile (OR¼1.8, 95% CI¼1.2–2.6) and EAH (OR¼2.2, 95% CI¼1.4–3.3). Satiety responsiveness was not influenced by sex and overweight/obesity. CONCLUSION: After an ad libitum meal, we found varied satiety responses, which related to EAH. Furthermore, shorter breastfeeding duration was associated with poorer satiety response and higher consumption during an EAH procedure. Understanding if breastfeeding influences the development of satiety responsiveness and eating behavior may be important in an era characterized by abundant calorie-dense foods and a plethora of environmental cues promoting consumption.