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Income Inequality or Performance Gap? A Multilevel Study of School Violence in 52 Countries

Authordc.contributor.authorContreras Guajardo, Dante 
Authordc.contributor.authorElacqua, Gregory 
Authordc.contributor.authorMartínez, Matías 
Authordc.contributor.authorMiranda, Álvaro 
Cita de ítemdc.identifier.citationJournal of Adolescent Health Vol. 57, No. 5, Noviembre, 2015es_ES
Abstractdc.description.abstractPurpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the association between income inequality and school violence and between the performance inequality and school violence in two international samples. Methods: The study used data from Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2011 and from the Central Intelligence Agency of United States which combined information about academic performance and students’ victimization (physical and social) for 269,456 fourth-grade students and 261,747 eighth-grade students, with gross domestic product and income inequality data in 52 countries. Ecological correlations tested associations between income inequality and victimization and between school performance inequality and victimization among countries. Multilevel ordinal regression and multilevel regression analyses tested the strength of these associations when controlling for socioeconomic and academic performance inequality at school level and family socioeconomic status and academic achievement at student level. Results: Income inequality was associated with victimization rates in both fourth and eighth grade (r z .60). Performance inequality shows stronger association with victimization among eighth graders (r z .46) compared with fourth graders (r z .30). Multilevel analyses indicate that both an increase in the income inequality in the country and school corresponds with more frequent physical and social victimization. On the other hand, an increase in the performance inequality at the system level shows no consistent association to victimization. However, school performance inequality seems related to an increase in both types of victimizations. Conclusions: Our results contribute to the finding that income inequality is a determinant of school violence. This result holds regardless of the national performance inequality between studentses_ES
Type of licensedc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Chile*
Link to Licensedc.rights.uri*
Sourcedc.sourceJournal of Adolescent Healthes_ES
Keywordsdc.subjectIncome inequalityes_ES
Keywordsdc.subjectPerformance inequalityes_ES
Keywordsdc.subjectHealth Behavior of School-Aged Children Studyes_ES
Títulodc.titleIncome Inequality or Performance Gap? A Multilevel Study of School Violence in 52 Countrieses_ES
Document typedc.typeArtículo de revistaes_ES
Indexationuchile.indexArtículo de publicación ISIes_ES

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Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Chile