Income Inequality or Performance Gap? A Multilevel Study of School Violence in 52 Countries
Contreras Guajardo, Dante
Cita de ítem
Journal of Adolescent Health Vol. 57, No. 5, Noviembre, 2015
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the association between income inequality and
school violence and between the performance inequality and school violence in two international
Methods: The study used data from Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2011
and from the Central Intelligence Agency of United States which combined information about
academic performance and students’ victimization (physical and social) for 269,456 fourth-grade
students and 261,747 eighth-grade students, with gross domestic product and income inequality
data in 52 countries. Ecological correlations tested associations between income inequality and
victimization and between school performance inequality and victimization among countries.
Multilevel ordinal regression and multilevel regression analyses tested the strength of these associations
when controlling for socioeconomic and academic performance inequality at school
level and family socioeconomic status and academic achievement at student level.
Results: Income inequality was associated with victimization rates in both fourth and eighth grade
(r z .60). Performance inequality shows stronger association with victimization among eighth
graders (r z .46) compared with fourth graders (r z .30). Multilevel analyses indicate that both an
increase in the income inequality in the country and school corresponds with more frequent
physical and social victimization. On the other hand, an increase in the performance inequality at
the system level shows no consistent association to victimization. However, school performance
inequality seems related to an increase in both types of victimizations.
Conclusions: Our results contribute to the finding that income inequality is a determinant of
school violence. This result holds regardless of the national performance inequality between