Rho kinase cascade activation in circulating leukocytes in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2
BackgroundThe intracellular ROCK signaling pathway is an important modulator of blood pressure and of cardiovascular and renal remodeling when Rho-kinase activity is increased. Besides, in preclinical models of diabetes, ROCK activation has also a role in abnormal glucose metabolism as well as in subsequent vascular and myocardial dysfunction. In humans, there are a few data assessing ROCK activation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and no studies assessing upstream/downstream components of the ROCK pathway. We assessed here levels of ROCK activation and some of the RhoA/ROCK cascade molecules in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in T2D patients under current treatment.MethodsCross-sectional observational study comparing 28 T2D patients under current antidiabetic treatment with 31 consecutive healthy subjects, matched by age and gender. Circulating levels of malondialdehyde, angiotensin II and inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 were determined in all subjects. ROCK activation in PMBCs, upstream and downstream cascade proteins, and levels of the proinflammatory molecules VCAM, ICAM-1 and IL-8 were determined in their PMBCs by Western blot.ResultsCompared to healthy controls, ROCK activation in T2D patients measured by 2 direct ROCK targets in PBMCs was increased by 420 and 570% (p<0001) and it correlated significantly with serum glucose levels. p38 MAPK phosphorylation (downstream from ROCK) and JAK-2 (upstream from ROCK) were significantly higher in the T2D patients by 580% and 220%, respectively. In T2D patients, significantly increased PBMC levels of the proinflammatory molecules VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and IL-8 were observed compared to control subjects (by 180%, 360% and 260%, respectively). Circulating levels of Ang II and MDA were significantly higher in T2D patients by 29 and 63%, respectively.ConclusionsT2D patients under treatment with glucose-lowering drugs, antihypertensive treatment as well as with statins have significantly increased ROCK activation in their circulating leukocytes along with higher phosphorylation of downstream cascade proteins despite pharmacologic treatment, along with increased plasma angiotensin II and MDA levels. ROCK inhibition might have an additional role in the prevention and treatment of T2D.
Artículo de publicación ISI
Quote ItemCardiovasc Diabetol (2020) 19:56
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