Regression of intestinal metaplasia to cardiac or fundic mucosa in patients with Barrett's esophagus submitted to vagotomy, partial gastrectomy and duodenal diversion. A prospective study of 78 patients with more than 5 years of follow up
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Background. Regression of intestinal metaplasia to cardiac mucosa in patients with Barrett's (BE) esophagus could alter the natural history of BE. Objective. To determine the regression of intestinal metaplasia to cardiac mucosa in patients followed more than 5 years after operation, by repeated endoscopy with biopsy. Material and Methods. This prospective study included 78 patients with BE submitted to combined vagotomy, antrectomy (an antireflux procedure), and Roux-en-Y gastrointestinal reconstruction with more than 60 months follow up. Patients were divided in 3 groups: (1) 31 with short-segment BE (<= 30 mm length); (2) 42 with long-segment BE (31 to 99 mm length); and (3) 5 with extralong-segment BE (>= 100 mm). Each patient had at least three endoscopic procedures with multiple biopsies during a mean follow up of 95 months (range, 60-220 months). Acid and duodenal reflux were also evaluated. Results. Sixty-four percent of patients with short segment BE had regression to cardiac mucosa at a mean of 40 months after operation. Sixty-two percent of patients with long segment BE had regression to cardiac mucosa at a mean of 4 7 months postoperatively. No regression occurred in the 5 patients with extra-long segment BE. In 20 % of patients, regression to fundic mucosa occurred between 78 to 94 months after surgery. One patient progressed to low grade dysplasia, but no patient progressed to high-grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma. Acid and duodenal reflux studies demonstrated that in asymplomatic patients, reflux was abolished; 90 % of the patients had a Visick grade of 1 or 2. Conclusions. Vagotomy and antrectomy combined with duodenal bile diversion abolish acid and duodenal reflux into the distal esophagus in patients with BE, which is accompanied by a regression of BE from intestinal to cardiac or fundic mucosa in about 60 % of patients. This regression is time dependent and varies directly with the length of BE. The potential for an antineoplastic effect, especially in young patients with long segment BE, suggests that this operation may become an attractive option as a definitive surgical treatment. Patients with short segment BE submitted to this procedure behave similar to patients submitted to Nissen fundoplication, and therefore in these patients, we do not advocate this complex operation.
Quote ItemSURGERY Volume: 139 Issue: 1 Pages: 46-53 Published: JAN 2006