Prevalence of periodontopathic bacteria in aggressive periodontitis patients in a Chilean population
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Background: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is considered a major etiologic agent of aggressive periodontitis (AgP). Other periodontopathic bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis are also suspected of participating in aggressive periodontitis although the evidence to support this is controversial. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of eight periodontopathic bacteria in Chilean patients with AgP. Methods: Subgingival plaque samples were collected from 36 aggressive, 30 localized, and six generalized periodontitis patients. Samples from 17 advanced chronic periodontitis (CP) patients were taken as controls. Samples collected from the four deepest periodontal pockets in each patient were pooled in prereduced transport fluid (RTF) and cultured. Periodontal bacteria were primarily identified by colony morphology under stereoscopic microscope and rapid biochemical tests. The identity of some bacterial isolates was confirmed by colony polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: AgP showed a significatively higher prevalence of C. rectus than CP (P = 0.036). The only statistical difference found was for C. rectus. Patients with AgP showed a higher, but not statistically significant, prevalence of P. gingivalis, E. corrodens, P. micros, and Capnocytophaga sp. A similar prevalence in both groups of patients was observed for F. nucleatum and P. intermedia/nigrescens, and A. actinomycetemcomitans was less prevalent in AgP than CP patients. In localized AgP, P. intermedia/nigrescens, E. corrodens, F. nucleatum, and P. micros were the more prevalent pathogens in contrast to generalized AgP patients who harbored A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, and Capnocytophaga sp. as the most prevalent bacteria. Conclusions: C. rectus, P. gingivalis, E. corrodens, P. micros, and Capnocytophaga sp. were the most predominant periodontopathic bacteria of AgP in this Chilean population, but the only statistical difference found here between AgP and CP was for C. rectus, suggesting that the differences in clinical appearance may be caused by factors other than the microbiological composition of the subgingival plaque of these patients. In this study, the prevalence of A. actinomycetemcomitans was much lower than that of P. gingivalis.