Interferon-g, Interleukins-6 and -4, and Factor XIII-A as Indirect Markers of the Classical and Alternative Macrophage Activation Pathways in Chronic Periodontitis
Dutzan Muñoz, Nicolás
Puente Piccardo, Javier
Hernández Ríos, Marcela
Gamonal Aravena, Jorge Antonio
Cita de ítem
J Periodontol • May 2014 Volume 85 • Number 5
Artículo de publicación ISI
Background: Macrophages account for 5% to 30% of the
inflammatory infiltrate in periodontitis and are activated by
the classic and alternative pathways. These pathways are
identified by indirect markers, among which interferon
(IFN)-g and interleukin-6 (IL)-6 of the classic pathway and
IL-4 of the alternative pathway have been studied widely. Recently,
factor XIII-A (FXIII-A) was reported to be a good
marker of alternative pathway activation. The aim of this
study is to determine the macrophage activation pathways
involved in chronic periodontitis (CP) by the detection of
the indirect markers IFN-g, IL-6, FXIII-A, and IL-4.
Methods: Biopsies were taken from patients with CP (n =
10) and healthy individuals (n = 10) for analysis of IFN-g,
IL-6, IL-4, and FXIII-A by Western blot (WB), immunohistochemistry
(IHC), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
(ELISA). The same biopsies of healthy and diseased gingival
tissue were used, and the expressions of these markers were
compared between healthy individuals and those with CP.
Results: The presence of macrophages was detected by
CD68+ immunohistochemistry and their IFN-g, IL-6, IL-4,
and FXIII-A markers by WB, IHC, and ELISA in all samples
of healthy and diseased tissue. IL-6, IL-4, and FXIII-A were
significantly higher in patients with CP, whereas FXIII-A
was higher in healthy individuals.
Conclusion: The presence of IFN-g, IL-6, IL-4, and FXIII-A
in healthy individuals and in patients with CP suggests that
macrophages may be activated by both classic and alternative
pathways in health and in periodontal disease.
This research was funded by National Fund for Scientific
and Technological Development Project 1090046.