Chilean School-Age Children Twin Registry: Planning, Sampling and Implications
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We describe subject recruitment from the University of Chile School-Age Children Twin Registry (REMEUCHI). The research aim of REMEUCHI is to quantify the impact of genetic and environmental factors on scholastic achievement in a multicausal approach. The Ministry of Education of Chile, in collaboration with the Registry Office, provided the list of possible twin pairs graduated from high school in 2004 in Chile's metropolitan region. From a population of 70,065 school-age children who had graduated from high school, 434 possible twin pairs were analyzed. Of these, 327 were twins reared together (75.3% of the 434 possible twins pairs) and born between 1986 and 1987 in Chile (mean age 18 years), and approximately 8% were not twins despite matches on full name and birth data. The rest of the possible twin pairs were probably twins reared apart, since one member of the pair had moved to study in another region of Chile. Zygosity was determined through questionnaires, maternal reports of twin similarities, and by the hospital records of the twins at the time of birth. Three hundred and twenty-seven pairs were identified, where monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins represented 46.8% and 53.2% of pairs, respectively, with a DZ/MZ ratio of 1.14. Considering same-sex MZ pairs, the percentage of female pairs was greater (55.6%) than male pairs (44.4%). When DZ pairs were analyzed, 47.7% were of opposite sex, 20.1% were male pairs and 32.2% female pairs. In Chile, these findings represent a baseline study to contribute to the establishment of a national twin registry in the future.