Major lineages of Loasaceae subfam. Loasoideae diversified during the Andean uplift
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The Loasoideae is the largest clade in the Loasaceae. This subfamily is widespread throughout the Neotropics and centered in the Andes, presenting an excellent opportunity to study diversification across much of temperate and mid to high-elevation areas of South America. Despite that, no studies have addressed the historical biogeography of the Loasoideae to date, leaving an important knowledge gap in this plant group. Here, we used four plastid markers (i.e., trnL–trnF, matK, trnS–trnG, and rps16) and sequenced 170 accessions (134 ingroup taxa) to infer the phylogeny of Loasoideae. We then used this phylogeny as basis to estimate divergence times using an uncorrelated relaxed molecular clock approach and seven fossils as primary calibration points. We employed the Dispersal-Extinction-Cladogenesis (DEC) approach to reconstruct the ancestral ranges of the subfamily. Our results indicate that stem Loasoideae diverged from its sister group in the Late Cretaceous to Early Paleocene (ca. 83–62 Ma). The crown node of the whole clade goes back to the Middle Paleocene to Middle Eocene (ca. 60–45 Ma), corresponding to the earliest diversification events of the extant groups, prior to most of the Andean orogeny and roughly coinciding with the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. On the other hand, the crown nodes of most genera appear to have originated in the Oligocene and Miocene (median ages: 28–10 Ma). The diversification of some extant lineages appears to have happened in parallel to Andean uplift pulses that seem to have had an effect on the orogeny and concomitant establishment of new habitats and latitudinal corridors. The most likely ancestral areas retrieved for crown Loasoideae, are the tropical Andes and Pacific arid coast. Most of the extant clades have remained restricted to their ancestral areas. Transoceanic Long Distance Dispersal appears to have been involved in the arrival of Loasoid ancestors to South America, and in the distribution of the small clades Kissenia in Africa and Plakothira on the Marquesas Archipelago. The results presented here suggest that the historical biogeography of the continental scale radiation of Loasoideae, follows the sequence and timing of the development of temperate and mid to high-elevation habitats across South America during the Tertiary.
Artículo de publicación SCOPUS
Quote ItemMolecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 141 (2019) 106616