Risk factors and spatial relative risk assessment for influenza a virus in poultry and swine in backyard production systems of central Chile
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Backyard production systems (BPS) are a common form of poultry and swine production worldwide. The limited implementation of biosecurity standards in these operations makes BPS a potential source for the emergence of pathogens that have an impact on both animal and public health. Information regarding circulation of influenza A virus (IAV) in poultry and swine raised in BPS is scarce; particularly in South American countries. The objective of this study was to estimate prevalence and seroprevalence of IAV in BPS in central Chile, identify subtype diversity, evaluate risk factors and spatial relative risk for IAV. Samples were collected from 329 BPS from central Chile. Seroprevalence at BPS level was 34.7% (95% CI: 23.1%-46.2%), 19.7% (95% CI: 9.9%-30.6%) and 11.7% (95% CI: 7.2%-16.4%), whereas prevalence at BPS level was 4.2% (95% CI: 0.0%-8.8%), 8.2% (95% CI: 0.8%-14.0%) and 9.2% (95% CI: 4.8%-13.1%), for the Metropolitan, Valparaiso and LGB O'Higgins regions, respectively. Spatial analysis revealed that central-western area of Metropolitan region and the southern province of Valparaiso region could be considered as high-risk areas for IAV (spatial relative risk = 2.2,p < .05). Logistic regression models identified the practice of breeding both poultry and pigs at the BPS as a risk factor (95% CI 1.06-3.75). From 75 IAV ELISA-positive sera, 20 chicken sera had haemagglutination inhibition titres ranging from 20 to 160, and of these, 11 had microneutralization titres ranging from 40 to 960 for one or more IAV subtypes. Identified subtypes were H1, H3, H4, H9, H10 and H12. Results from this study highlight the need for further IAV surveillance programmes in BPS in Chile. Early detection of IAV strains circulating in backyard animals, especially in regions with large human populations, could have an enormous impact on animal and public health.
Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica 21120512 Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT) CONICYT FONDECYT 1121389 11917479 United States Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health (NIH) - USA NIH National Institute of Allergy & Infectious Diseases (NIAID) HHSN272201400006
Artículo de publicación ISI
Quote ItemVet Med Sci . 2020 Aug; 6(3):518-526
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