Stimulatory response of neutrophils from periodontitis patients with periodontal pathogens
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OBJECTIVE: Neutrophils play a crucial role in the defense of invading bacteria by releasing biologically active molecules. The response of peripheral blood neutrophils was studied in periodontitis-affected patients and in healthy controls towards stimulation to Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) extracts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peripheral venous blood was drawn from 23 adult patients with moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis (probing depth >= 5 mm, attachment loss >= 3 mm), and 30 healthy volunteers. Neutrophil response followed by metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion was assayed by zymography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, on both whole blood and purified neutrophils. In addition to periodontal pathogen extracts, known stimulating agents were tested, such as Escherichia coli-lipopolysaccharide (LPS), phytohemagglutinin, and zymosan A. RESULTS: Neutrophil response, expressed as a secretion ratio under stimulated and non-stimulated conditions, measured in whole blood, showed no differences between periodontitis and healthy controls. Instead, in purified neutrophils from patients, MMP-9 exhibited a significantly higher secretion ratio with LPS and Pg (1.5- to 2-fold), whereas IL-8 showed a larger increase in secretion ratio (3- to 7-fold) in the presence of Pg, Aa, LPS, and zymosan A. CONCLUSION: Peripheral neutrophils of periodontitis-affected patients are more reactive as suggested by their significantly higher response toward periodontal pathogen extracts and other stimulating agents.