Population-based prevalence and age distribution of human papillomavirus among women in Santiago, Chile
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More than 18 types of human papillomavirus (HPV) are associated with cervical cancer, the relative importance of the HPV types may vary in different populations. Objective: To investigate the types of HPV, age distribution, and risk factors for HPV infection in women from Santiago, Chile. Methods: We interviewed and obtained two cervical specimens from a population-based random sample of 1,038 sexually active women (age range, 15-69 years). Specimens were tested for the presence of HPV DNA using a GP5+/6+ primer-mediated PCR and for cervical cytologic abnormalities by Papanicolaou smears. Results: 122 women tested positive for HPV DNA, 87 with high risk types (HR), and 35 with low risks (LR) only. Standardized prevalence of HPV DNA was 14.0% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 11.5-16.4]. HR HPV by age showed a J reverse curve, whereas LR HPV showed a U curve, both statistically significant in comparison with no effect or with a linear effect. We found 34 HPV types (13 HR and 21 LR); HPV 16, 56, 31, 58, 59, 18, and 52 accounted for 75.4% of HR infections. Thirty-four (3.6%) women had cytologic lesions. Main risk factor for HPV and for cytologic abnormalities was number of lifetime sexual partners, odds ratios for greater than or equal to 3 versus 1 were 2.8 (95% CI, 1.6-5.0) and 3.8 (95% CI, 1.3-11.4), respectively. Conclusions: LR HPV presented a clear bimodal age pattern; HR HPV presented a J reverse curve. HPV prevalence was similar to that described in most Latin American countries.