Cytomegalovirus infections in cardiac transplant patients: An experience at a clinical hospital, University of Chile
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Background. Since cytomegalovirus (CMV) infects between 20% and 50% of heart transplant patients, we reviewed our experience in 7 cases of this infection. Methods. A prospective analysis of CMV infection was performed in heart transplant patients who received cyclosporine, azathioprine, or mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone. An elevated creatinine de novo was managed with antibody induction. Results. Between August 2001 and December 2005, we performed 22 heart transplants and I heart plus kidney transplant. Twenty-two patients were positive for CMV before transplantation. One patient died early because of graft failure. Immunosuppression included cyclosporine and prednisone (100%), azathioprine (52%), or mycophenolate (47%). Two recipients were induced with thymoglobulin and 13 with Daclizumab, while 8 did not receive any antibody. Nineteen patients received prophylaxis for CMV. Seven patients (30%) showed CMV infection, 6 of whom had received prophylaxis. Symptoms started at an average of 107 days posttransplantation in patients with prophylaxis. Three patients had gastritis, 2 pneumonia, and 1 colitis. One patient had concomitant lung aspergillosis. The two patients who received ATG developed CMV infections; 3 of the 12 with Daclizumab; and 2 who did not receive antibody. Of the CMV-infected subjects, 5 were on azathioprine and 2 on mycophenolate. All patients were treated with gancyclovir. The 1 patient with concomitant aspergillosis died. Conclusions. The incidence of infection by CMV was 30%. Prophylaxis seemed to delay infection. Daclizumab induction did not increase the risk for CMV.