Contraception and pregnancy in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a review
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Adolescence is a critical period for girls with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). Reproductive issues, such as menstrual abnormalities, risk of an unplanned pregnancy, and contraception, should be addressed during this phase of life. This paper reviews several reproductive issues that are important in the care of adolescents, including pubertal development, menstrual abnormalities, ovulatory function, reproductive problems, the effects of hyperglycemia, contraception, and treatment of an unplanned pregnancy. A review of the literature was conducted. AMEDLINE search January 1966 to March 2011 was performed using the following MESH terms: puberty, menarche, ovary, polycystic ovary syndrome, menstruation, contraception, contraception-barrier, contraceptives-oral-hormonal, sex education, family planning services, and pregnancy in adolescence. This literature search was cross-referenced with an additional search on diabetes mellitus-type 1, diabetes complications, and pregnancy in diabetes. All published studies were searched regardless of the language of origin. Bibliographies were reviewed to extract additional relevant sources.
DOI: doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5448.2011.00825.x