Koukopoulos diagnostic criteria for mixed depression: a validation study.
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Mixed depression (MxD) is one subtype of depressive experiences within the depressive spectrum. MxD definition is debated among experts. Koukopoulos proposed diagnostic criteria focused primarily on psychic agitation, marked irritability, and intense mood lability as markers of a mixed depressive episode. The present study validates Koukopoulos criteria as diagnostic for MxD. A sample of 435 patients from the International Mood Network (IMN), multi-center, international network of sites, and the Centro LucioBini of Rome was analyzed. Koukopoulos criteria were assessed in all patients. The most prevalent MxD criteria were "absence of psychomotor retardation" (84%), "mood lability or marked reactivity" (78%), and "psychic agitation or inner tension" (75%). Multivariable predictors of a MxD (+) diagnosis were: higher current CGI (OR=1.23, 95% CI 1.23, 2.84), lower rates of previous bipolar type I diagnosis (OR=0.54, 95% CI -3.28, -0.13), mixed symptoms on the index episode (OR=10.02, 95%
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