Inhibition of mitochondrial fission prevents hypoxia-induced metabolic shift and cellular proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells
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Chronic hypoxia exacerbates proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC), thereby reducing the lumen of pulmonary arteries. This leads to poor blood oxygenation and cardiac work overload, which are the basis of diseases such as pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). Recent studies revealed an emerging role of mitochondria in PAH pathogenesis, as key regulators of cell survival and metabolism. In this work, we assessed whether hypoxia-induced mitochondrial fragmentation contributes to the alterations of both PASMC death and proliferation. In previous work in cardiac myocytes, we showed that trimetazidine (TMZ), a partial inhibitor of lipid oxidation, stimulates mitochondrial fusion and preserves mitochondrial function. Thus, here we evaluated whether TMZ-induced mitochondrial fusion can prevent human PASMC proliferation in an in vitro hypoxic model. Using confocal fluorescence microscopy, we showed that prolonged hypoxia (48 h) induces mitochondrial fragmentation along with higher levels of the mitochondrial fission protein DRP1. Concomitantly, both mitochondrial potential and respiratory rates decreased, indicative of mitochondrial dysfunction. In accordance with a metabolic shift towards non-mitochondrial ATP generation, mRNA levels of glycolytic markers HK2, PFKFB2 and GLUT1 increased during hypoxia. Incubation of PASMC with TMZ, prior to hypoxia, prevented all these changes and precluded the increase in PASMC proliferation. These findings were also observed using Mdivi-1 (a pharmacological DRP1 inhibitor) or a dominant negative DRP1 K38A as pre-treatments. Altogether, our data indicate that TMZ exerts a protective role against hypoxia-induced PASMC proliferation, by preserving mitochondrial function, thus highlighting DRP1-dependent morphology as a novel therapeutic approach for diseases such as PAH.
Artículo de publicación ISI
Quote ItemMolecular Basis of Disease 1863 (2017) 2891–2903
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